Categories: Cholesterol Diet

The main principles of a diet with high cholesterol

Today everyone probably heard about a diet without cholesterol. Violation of fat metabolism in the body provokes the development of atherosclerosis – a serious disease that is dangerous for its complications. Treatment of pathology is complex, but always includes correction of the image and life and nutrition. What are the consequences of increased cholesterol in the blood, and what can a diet help? Let’s understand.

A little about cholesterol and its effect on the body

Before you understand the features of a diet with cholesterol, it is worth to learn more about this substance and its effect on the human body.

So, cholesterol, or cholesterol – is a fat-like substance, according to the biochemical classification, belongs to the class of lipophilic (fatty) alcohols. The total content of this organic compound in the body is approximately 200. And most of it, 75-80%, is formed by hepatocytes in the human liver, and only 20% is supplied with food in the composition of fats.

On a logical question, why does the body produce a substance that is potentially dangerous for it, there is a logical answer. The normal amount of cholesterol is necessary, since the organic compound performs the following functions:

  • is part of the cytoplasmic membrane of all cells, makes it more elastic and strong (another name for fatty alcohol is the membrane stabilizer);
  • regulates the permeability of the cell wall, blocks the penetration of certain toxic substances through it;
  • is the basis for the synthesis of steroid hormones by the adrenal glands;
  • is involved in the production of bile acids, vitamin D in the liver.

But raising the level of cholesterol in the blood represents a certain danger to health. This pathology is associated with a violation of the metabolism of fats in the body and is provoked:

  • hereditary (family) dyslipidemia;
  • chronic renal insufficiency;
  • arterial hypertension;
  • acute or chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis;
  • pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer;
  • endocrine and metabolic disorders: diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, somatotropic hormone deficiency;
  • obesity;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • smoking, including passive;
  • taking certain medicines: COC, steroid hormones, diuretics, etc .;
  • pregnancy.

Note! The risk of encountering increased cholesterol increases with age: more often dyslipidemia occurs in men after 35-40 years and women after 50 years.

First of all, high cholesterol is associated with a disease such as atherosclerosis. This pathology is characterized by the appearance of fatty plaques on the internal surface of the arteries, narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels and the violation of blood supply to internal organs. This is fraught with the development of such conditions as:

  • cardiac ischemia;
  • angina pectoris tension;
  • encephalopathy;
  • disorders of blood supply in the brain: TIA, and the highest degree of pathology – ONMK;
  • disorders of blood supply to the kidneys;
  • disorders of blood circulation in the vessels of the extremities.

In the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, an important role is played not only by the concentration of total cholesterol, but also by what fraction of it predominates in the blood. In medicine, there are:

  1. Atherogenic lipoproteins. Large, saturated with cholesterol and triglycerides, they easily settle on the intima of the vessels and form atherosclerotic plaques.
  2. Antiatherogenic lipoproteins. This fraction is small in size and contains the minimum amount of cholesterol. Their biological role is to capture “lost” fat molecules and transport them to the liver for further processing. Thus, they are a kind of “brush” for blood vessels.

Thus, a diet with high cholesterol should be aimed at reducing its atherogenic fractions.

With high cholesterol it is important to follow a diet

Therapeutic diets are an important stage in the therapy of many somatic pathologies. There is no exception to atherosclerosis and the lipid metabolism that caused it. Before you make a menu with increased cholesterol, try to figure out how the food affects its level.

So, the daily diet of a healthy person contains an average of 250-300 mg of cholesterol. Given the fact that most of the fatty alcohol is produced in the liver, this amount is enough to provide the physiological needs of the body.

And what happens if blood cholesterol is elevated? As a rule, an increase in the concentration of this organic compound occurs due to the endogenous, “own” fraction. In any case, even 250-300 mg of substance coming from the outside become superfluous, and only aggravate the course of atherosclerosis.

Thus, therapeutic nutrition for lowering cholesterol in the blood:

  1. Positively affects the operation of the cardiovascular system.
  2. Normalizes metabolism.
  3. Already during the first month helps reduce “bad” fats in the body by 15-25% of the original.
  4. Reduces the likelihood of the formation of atherosclerotic plaques on the internal wall of the arteries.
  5. It provokes a decrease in the risk of complications that are hazardous to health and life.
  6. Increases the life expectancy of people with impaired fat metabolism.

Therefore, adherence to the principles of therapeutic nutrition at all stages of treatment of atherosclerosis helps to achieve excellent results. How to lower cholesterol in the blood with a diet: let’s understand.

The diet with increased cholesterol in the blood is not only the prevention of the formation of new atherosclerotic plaques. Long-term adherence to the principles of therapeutic nutrition will help clear the vessels of cholesterol deposits and even “dissolve” mature plaques. Among the main dietary rules for lowering cholesterol are:

  • a sharp restriction / exclusion of foods that cause the concentration of “bad” lipids to rise;
  • decrease daily intake of cholesterol to 150-200 mg;
  • saturation of the body with “useful” cholesterol;
  • the use of a large amount of fiber;
  • fractional meals in small portions;
  • adherence to the drinking regime.

What can and can not eat with high cholesterol

Abandon dietary cholesterol is the first thing you need to do to lower cholesterol in your blood. This organic compound is found in animal fat, which is a part of fatty meat, fat, smoked products, dairy products, egg yolk, etc. Transgrese, which are one of the by-products of the food industry, a kind of unsaturated fat, the molecules of which are in the trance -configuration.

Note! The arrival of “food” cholesterol in the body is an optional process: even with prolonged vegetation (but at the same time balanced!), The person remains healthy.

Meat can bring a patient with atherosclerosis both good and bad. In addition to high-quality protein, it contains animal fat, which reduces the concentration of “good” HDL-P and increases the atherogenic cholesterol fraction.

Is it possible to include meat in the diet against atherosclerosis? It is possible, but not all: in this food group are distinguished by elevated cholesterol:

  • brains – 800-2300 mg / 100 g;
  • kidney – 300-800 mg / 100 g;
  • chicken liver – 492 mg / 100 g;
  • beef liver – 270-400 mg / 100 g;
  • fillet of pork – 380 mg / 100 g;
  • chicken heart – 170 mg / 100 g;
  • liver sausage – 169 mg / 100 g;
  • beef tongue – 150 mg / 100 g;
  • Pork liver – 130 mg / 100 g;
  • Smoked sausage – 115 mg / 100 g;
  • sausages, sausages – 100 mg / 100 g;
  • beef fat – 90 mg / 100

These products are a real cholesteric bomb. Their use, even in small amounts, leads to increased dyslipidemia and impaired fat metabolism. Fatty meat, offal and sausages should be completely excluded from the diet of therapeutic nutrition with low cholesterol.

In addition to the actual content of cholesterol on the development of atherosclerosis affect other substances in the product. For example, beef fat contains a large amount of refractory fats, which make it even more “problematic” in terms of forming cholesterol plaques than pork.

The diet for reducing cholesterol allows the use of the following meat products:

  • low-fat lamb – 98 mg / 100 g;
  • Rabbit meat – 90 mg / 100 g;
  • horse meat – 78 mg / 100 g;
  • lamb – 70 mg / 100 g;
  • chicken breast – 40-60 mg / 100 g;
  • turkey – 40-60 mg / 100

Low-fat meat of mutton, rabbit or poultry refers to dietary products. They contain a moderate amount of cholesterol and are saturated with high-quality protein. Doctors say that boiled or steamed products from this group can be eaten 2-3 times a week.

Thus, the diet against cholesterol has the following rules for eating meat and poultry:

  1. Completely exclude from the diet beef, pork, offal and sausage.
  2. During a diet that lowers cholesterol, you can eat lean mutton, rabbit, chicken or turkey.
  3. Always remove the skin from the bird, as it contains a high percentage of cholesterol.
  4. Give up the “harmful” ways of cooking – frying, smoking, salting. Preferably cook the meat, bake or steam.
  5. It is recommended to include lean meat in the 2-3 diet once a week.
  6. It is better, if the garnish to him will be fresh / thermally processed vegetables (except potatoes), rather than simple carbohydrates – white rice, pasta, etc.

Saturated fatty acids and trans fats

Foods that contain a high level of saturated fatty acids and trans fats pose a serious danger to normal fat metabolism in the body. Excessive use of them is undesirable even for a healthy person, and patients with atherosclerosis should exclude them from their diet completely. Such products include:

  • margarine;
  • cooking oil;
  • salomass;
  • palm oil (can be found even in the composition of chocolate).

Regardless of the level of cholesterol in their composition, they saturate the body with “bad” lipids, promote the formation of new atherosclerotic plaques and the rapid development of acute and chronic vascular complications.

Experts advise to replace harmful saturated fats with vegetable oils:

Vegetable oils are classified as products that reduce the risk of atherosclerotic plaque formation, since they do not have cholesterol in their composition, but are saturated with useful polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Note! A large number of saturated fatty acids is formed during the frying of dishes, so patients should be categorically rejected from this method of cooking.

The diet for high cholesterol in men and women must necessarily include eating fish at least twice a week. The content of the organic compound in question in different types of inhabitants of water bodies is not the same:

  • mackerel – 360 mg / 100 g;
  • stellate sturgeon – 300 mg / 100 g;
  • carp – 270 mg / 100 g;
  • oysters – 170 mg / 100 g;
  • shrimp – 114 mg / 100 g;
  • pollock – 110 mg / 100 g;
  • herring – 97 mg / 100 g;
  • trout – 56 mg / 100 g;
  • tuna – 55 mg / 100 g;
  • pike – 50 mg / 100 g;
  • cod – 30 mg / 100

Despite the relatively high cholesterol content, fish and seafood are rich in unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. In addition, the lipid composition of freshwater and marine life is represented mainly by “good” high-density lipoproteins. Therefore, regular consumption of fish in boiled, cooked steamed or baked form will help reduce the manifestations of existing atherosclerosis and prevent the formation of new cholesterol plaques.

Milk and dairy products, especially if they are made from whole milk, should be used with caution in patients with elevated cholesterol. The content of this substance remains rather high in them:

  • Gouda cheese, 45% fat. – 114 mg / 100 g;
  • Cream cheese, 60% fat. – 100 mg / 100 g;
  • sour cream, 30% fat. – 90-100 mg / 100 g;
  • cream, 30% fat. – 80 mg / 100 g;
  • fatty cottage cheese – 40 mg / 100 g;
  • goat milk 30 mg / 100 g;
  • milk, 1% – 3,2 mg / 100 g;
  • kefir, 1% – 3,2 mg / 100 g;
  • curd fat-free – 1 mg / 100

Thus, patients with atherosclerosis are advised to exclude from the diet matured cheeses of hard varieties, fatty sour cream, cream. But 1% milk, kefir or low-fat cottage cheese will provide the body with a sufficient amount of protein and calcium with a low content of cholesterol.

Eggs are a controversial product for patients with atherosclerosis. A healthy and dietary protein adjoins it with a yolk that contains a large amount of cholesterol:

  • chicken eggs – 570 mg / 100 g;
  • quail eggs – 600 mg / 100

With this amount of fatty alcohol, it would seem, these products should be strictly contraindicated in atherosclerosis. But this is not so: the fact is that the yolk contains basically “good” lipoproteins, as well as the unique biological substance lecithin. It promotes the normalization of lipid metabolism and removes excess cholesterol from the body. Thus, allows the use of eggs, but not more often 1-2 once a week.

It is interesting that excessive consumption of carbohydrates in some cases can lead to an increase in the level of cholesterol in the blood. This complex biochemical process is a chain of reactions of cleavage of polysaccharides with conversion into their glucose, and then triglycerides and adipose tissue.

Therefore, during the therapeutic diet, patients are recommended to limit consumption:

  • potatoes;
  • macaroni products;
  • white rice;
  • sweets, cookies, other confectionery products.

It is better to replace them with digestible carbohydrates (most cereals, brown rice), which, when digested, release the dose of glucose. In the future, it is spent on the needs of the body, and not transformed into fat. A pleasant feeling of inclusion of such products in the diet will be a long feeling of satiety.

Fresh seasonal vegetables and fruits – this is what should become the basis of nutrition. During the day, patients with atherosclerosis are recommended to consume at least 2-3 different fruits and 2-3 varieties of vegetables. Vegetable food is rich in fiber, which cleanses the intestinal walls from toxins, restores digestion and helps lose weight.

The most antiatherogenic properties are:

  • garlic – for a positive effect, use an 1 clove of garlic for a period of 3-6 months;
  • Bulgarian pepper – the leader in the content of vitamin C, which is a powerful antioxidant;
  • carrots – a source of vitamin A;
  • Kiwi and pineapple are fruits that promote the normalization of metabolism and weight loss.

Note! The source of fiber in the diet can act and special nutritional supplements – for example, oat or rye bran.

Compliance with the drinking regime is an important stage in the normalization of metabolism and weight loss. The main assistant in this case is clean drinking water. The diet with increased cholesterol in women implies the use of 1,5 to 2,5 l of water (depending on the height and weight). In men this indicator can reach 3-3,5 l / day.

Also for atherosclerosis it is useful to drink:

  • broth of dogrose;
  • jelly own preparation, unsweetened compotes;
  • green tea.

Under the ban, coffee and alcohol remain in any form. A fragrant invigorating drink contains the substance Cafestol, which can indirectly influence the level of cholesterol in the body, increasing it. Alcohol provokes the development of metabolic disorders and intimal vascular damage. All this is predisposing factors in the development of atherosclerosis.

Cholesterol-free diet: menu on 7 days

Breakfast is one of the most important meals. It is he who gives energy for the whole first half of the day and helps to wake up. Even in patients with atherosclerosis, breakfast should be quite dense and include porridge / eggs / cottage cheese (to choose from), as well as fresh fruit or vegetable.

When compiling a sample lunch menu, follow the following rule:

  • ½ the volume of food should be vegetables in fresh or cooked form;
  • ⅔ The volume of food falls on complex carbohydrates – cereals, brown rice;
  • the remaining ⅓ is meat, poultry, fish or vegetable protein.

When planning dinner, these proportions remain, except that the whole volume of garnish is filled with vegetable salad. There are carbohydrates for the night, even complex, not recommended.

If you are having difficulty finding food, contact your doctor. He will be able to answer your questions and recommend the optimal scheme of therapeutic nutrition.